Taiwanese art.Until the 17th century, Taiwan’s art and culture were largely shaped by immigrants from mainland China. The largest wave of premodern immigration occurred during the Qing Dynasty, particularly since the late 1630s when tens of thousands of Chinese, mostly from Guangdong and Fujian provinces, fled to Taiwan. In Tainan and Taipei, the refugees founded the first Confucian temples and schools. At the end of the 17th and especially in the 18th century, the most important Buddhist temples were built, including the Buddha Temple (Mito, around 1670) in Tainan and the Dragon Mount Temple (Longshansi, 1738–41) in Taipei, whose architecture is strong Dependence on the South Chinese sacred architecture shows. Like architecture, Taiwan’s painting and writing were also very popular until the end of the 19th century.
Taiwan’s path to modern art was paved under the Japanese colonial government (1894 / 95–1945). Japanese artists trained in Europe came to Taiwan at the beginning of the 20th century and taught Western painting as well as Japanese painting (Nihonga). In the 1920s and 30s, Late Impressionism and Fauvism were the predominant painting styles of Taiwanese artists. The best-known representatives were Yang Sanlang (* 1907, † 1995) and Lin Jixiang (* 1910, † 1998). In addition, painting in the traditional Chinese style by artists such as Zhang Daqian (* 1899, † 1983) who came to Taiwan from mainland China after 1949 with the Guomindang government. The two avant-garde artist groups “Wuyue Huahui” (May Art Club) under the leadership of Liao Jizhun (* 1902, † 1976) and “Dongfang Huahui” (Art Club of the East) under the leadership of Li Zhongsheng (* 1911, † 1984), who advocated Western abstract art, especially abstract expressionism, and rejected traditional Chinese art. The artist Liu Guosong (* 1932) was active in both groups.
From the mid-1970s onwards, the Xiangtu movement (homeland movement), which is rooted in Taiwanese literature, also made itself felt in the fine arts: It turned decisively against all cultural currents of modernity, especially those influenced by the West, which had been influenced by the Japanese since around 1900 and later introduced into Taiwan by the Americans. Xiangtu artists such as Hong Tong (* 1920, † 1987) Inspired by Taiwanese folk art, nature and rural life, they created romantic images of idyllic country life in a hyper-realistic style influenced by American photorealism. With the abolition of martial law (1987) and the country’s economic boom in the 1980s, the local art scene and the art market also boomed. Many artists living in exile (including Xiao Jin, * 1935 in Italy; Zhao Wuji [Zao Wu-Ki], * 1921 in France) returned to Taiwan and brought all styles of postmodernism with them. The international perception and recognition of Taiwanese artists has been increasing since the mid-1990s. The feminist artist Wu Mali (* 1957) and Hou Zhunming (* 1963), known for his graphic work, represented Taiwan at the 1995 Venice Biennale, among others. The versatile Yao Ruizhong (* 1969) is considered a promising young artist.
New Taipei, a city directly under the government in northern Taiwan, encloses the Taiwanese capital Taipei, with (2019) 4.0 million residents the largest city in the island state.
New Taipei was formed in 2010 by reshaping the former Taipei County and has an area of 2,053 km 2; Residential belt for Taipei with many green spaces and museums; Traffic center.
According to allcitycodes, Taichung, Taizhong, is a city under the government in central Taiwan, in the western coastal plain, with (2019) 2.8 million residents.
Catholic bishopric; state and private university (both founded in 1961), private Christian university (founded in 1955), medical college, agricultural research institute; Museums, botanical garden; Port, international airport. The city became the seat of the provincial government of Taiwan in 1959; various administrative authorities have since been relocated to the newly established southern neighboring city of Zhongxing Xinzhun. Taichung is the center of a rich agricultural area and industrial location (metal processing, shoe industry). The modern international port on Formosastraße is around 30 km from the city center; A free production zone was set up here, in which mainly foreign processing plants produce for export.
Gaoxiong [-çi-], Kaohsiung, direct government city on the southwest coast of Taiwan, with (2019) 2.8 million residents.
Technical, medical college; Taiwan’s most important port, which has been expanded into a major international port and is also the island’s largest fishing and passenger port. A free production zone was created in the port area; Shipbuilding and mechanical engineering, electrotechnical, chemical (especially petrochemical) and cement industries, petroleum refineries, steelworks, aluminum works (near bauxite mining), paper and sugar industries; largest ship scrapping facility in the world; international Airport. The secondary port of Tsoying is a naval base. Gaoxiong has had a subway since 2008.
From the 17th century, a.o. the “Temple of the Kings of the Three Mountains”, the “Three Phoenix Palace” and the Wen Wu shrine have been preserved.