Greece Architecture Part 3
Purity of lines is also in the so-called Theseĩon in Athens, perhaps the temple of Hephaestus: add, for the century. It goes. C., the Poseidónion of Capo Sounio, the temple of Nemesis in Ramnunte, the Heraĩon of Argos in the reconstruction of Eupolemo, the temple of Concordia in Agrigento, the unfinished temple of Segesta, with the columns not yet fluted.
According to sportsqna, the Ionic order had its greatest development in Asia Minor and in the adjacent islands, where they arose, in the second half of the century. Street. C., three famous temples. The first, the Artemisium of Ephesus, erected in the place of two much smaller temples, was the work of Cretan Kersiphone and his son Metagene: it was an octastyle temple with twenty columns on each of the major sides; the shaft of the column, on a base with two grooves and a large cushion, was, in the lower part, covered with a figured relief (columna caelata). Remains of the building were recovered under the remains of the rear building built in 356 BC. C. Of the ancient temple of Apollo Filesio or Didimeo near Miletus, destroyed by the Persians in 494, few materials have been recovered; only it is known that it was Diptera. The third temple was the Heraĩon of Samo, due in its first construction to Reco and Theodore of Samo; the remains that have come down to us are from the later construction, dating back to the last years of the century. VI: it was a large building (52.41 m wide = 100 Egyptian cubits); in the short sides it was a triple row of columns, while a double row was in the long sides (24 columns per row): the cell was without opisthodomos and preceded by a deep pronaos, divided into three naves by two rows of five columns each.
In the second half of the century. It goes. C. we have instead the appearance of the Ionic order of Attic variety, with two very elegant buildings of the acropolis of Athens, namely the temple of Athena Níke (tetrastyle, amphiprostyle), designed by Kallikrates, and with the Erechtheion (prostyle, hexastyle, with three rooms in the cell, with the portico to the north, with the tribune of the caryatids to the south), the work of Philocles, executed during the Peloponnesian war.
In Athens, in the second half of the century. It goes. C., appears the introduction of Ionic elements in Doric buildings; so in the Parthenon, beyond the frieze or zoofóros all around the cell, there were the four columns of the room called the parthenón, which were of the Ionic order. Thus Ionic columns were in the propylaea of the acropolis. But the union of the two Doric and Ionic orders is striking in a temple in the Peloponnese, that is, in the temple of Apollo Epicurius in Basse, the work of Ictino, built in the last decades of the century. It goes. C.: it was a peritterian building, hexastyle, with 15 Doric columns for each long side; the temple was ipetral, that is, partially uncovered; from this uncovered space, on each side, five pillars formed of Ionic half columns, of a strong, energetic shape, and on which ran a continuous frieze in relief. In the temple of Basse, another type of capital appears for the first time, the Corinthian.
It is precisely in the second half of the century. V that this Corinthian capital develops, a derivation of the Ionic. Under the Ionic volutes, in fact, the acanthus tufts flourish; the volutes become thinner and smaller, while these tufts of leaves are arranged in two superimposed rows. The legendary origin of the Corinthian capital, which would have been inspired by the sight of a basket placed on the tomb of a Corinthian girl and around which an acanthus plant would have developed, with its regularly distributed foliage, is at Vitruvius (De Architectura, IV, 1, 10), who also mentions the artist who introduced this capital into architecture, namely Callimachus the artificial (katatexítechnos). In reality, and especially in the ornaments of funeral steles, during the century. V the acanthus leaf ornamentation acquires importance, which, as an architectural element, appears timidly in the last decades of the same century, when Callimachus was active, who executed the golden lamp for the Erechtheion. But the full development of the Corinthian capital is only in the century. IV, with the thólos or round edifice, made in the first half of the same century for the sanctuary of Asclepius in Epidaurus by Polykleitos the Younger.
In the century IV less numerous are the temples than in the previous century. Raised between 380 and 375 was the Asclepeus of Epidaurus, the work of Theodotus, of Doric, Peritterian, hexastyle order, with eleven columns on each of the major sides, with the cell composed of a pronaos and a naós; after 395 the temple of Athena Alea in Tegea was built by Scopa di Paro, in marble, perittero, hexastyle, with Doric columns in the ptéroma, Ionic in the cell, Corinthian in front of the pronaos and opisthodomos. Later, the Doric order atrophies: the echinus of the capital stiffens into an arid architectural element of passage, with straight lines.