Greece Architecture Part 2
According to sourcemakeup, the first building, in which we observe the various constituent parts of the Doric style, is the Heraĩon or temple of Hera in Olympia. It was a temple that rested on a crepidoma or base of two steps (48.63 m. By 17.38 m); it was Peritterian, hexastyle, with 16 columns on the longer sides; it had pronaos and opisthodomos preceded by two columns; the cell was originally devoid of columns, but with niches, four on each side, given by protruding walls; later two rows of eight columns divided the cell into three naves. The ptéromao external portico consisted of wooden columns, which over time were replaced with stone columns, so that at the time of Pausanias (V, 16,1) of these ancient wooden columns only one was left. The walls of the cell, on a stone base, were made of unbaked bricks, the doorposts and pillars were covered with wooden planks, the upper facing of the temple was terracotta, the slope of the pediments was very scarce. All these are characteristics of archaism. Other archaic Doric buildings are the ancient Heraĩon of Argos, with columns of small diameter and distant from each other, and the temple of Tiryns, which has a special type of capital, called the Achaean capital, with a gorge below the echinus. adorned with stylized leaves, an element that looks like a remnant of Mycenaean tradition,
Other archaic temples are the following: the primitive Apollónion of Cyrene, the Basilica of Pesto, with the division of the cell into two naves and with nine columns on each short side, the temple of Apollo in Corinth, the temple C of Selinunte, the Apollónion of Thérmos, the primitive Hekatómpedon of the Acropolis of Athens, the temple of Garítsa in Corfu, the Artemísion (?) And the Olimpieĩon of Syracuse, the temple of the Acropolis of Taranto, the Palatine Tables and the Church of Samson in Metaponto, the Herakleĩon of Crotone, the Herakleĩon of Girgenti, temple D and part of the temple G or Apollónion of Selinunte, which last, very large (50m by 110.33m), is a pseudodipter. Add the temple of Apollo in Delphi, built by the Alcmeonids between 538 and 515 BC. C., of which we know very little, because it was rebuilt in the century. IV a. C. Always at the same century. The Hekatómpedon of the Acropolis of Athens belong to you, enlarged by the Pisistratids and transformed into a peritterian, hexastyle temple with twelve columns on the long sides; the temple of Ace in the Troad, in which the cell, due to the presence of the vestibule and the absence of the opisthodomus, recalls thepre- Hellenic mégaron, and in which the colannas are spaced apart, while the epistyle is adorned with a figured frieze (zoofóros), an element of Ionic style in a Doric style building; the temple known as Ceres in Pesto, always with Achaean capitals.
By now the V century a. C. is the temple of Aphaia in Aegina (31 meters by 15.50 meters), hexastyle, with twelve columns on each major side, with pronaos, naós, opisthodomos, and with the naós divided into three naves. This temple precedes those of more mature archaism, typical of which are the temples of Zeus in Olympia, of Poseidon in Pesto, of Zeus in Agrigento; in addition, as famous temples, the Athenaĩon of Syracuse and the temple E or Heraĩon of Selinunte. The temple of Zeus in Olympia, inaugurated in Olympiad 81 (456 BC), rising on a high crepidoma (64.10 m by 27.66 m), was peritterian, hexastyle, with 13 columns on each long side, had pronaos, naósdivided into three naves by two two-storey colonnades, opisthodomos; the eleo Libon is mentioned as an architect. Similar to the temple of Zeus in Olympia is the Poseidónion of Pesto, which has come down to us in a good state of conservation as regards the colonnades; only the proportions of the temple of Pesto are smaller (58 meters by 22 meters); there the relationship between the distance between column and column and the diameter of the column itself is remarkable, which is equal to the ratio between the length of the metopes and that of the triglyphs: that is from 3 to 2. The temple of Zeus in Agrigento, begun after the battle of Imera (480 BC), and never completed. Long m. 120.87 and wide m. 55,10, was pseudodicterus with 7 semi-columns on the short sides, 14 on the long sides, consisting not of large drums, but of small stones, given the friable nature of the material, that it was limestone; the semi-columns were provided with a base and in the intercolumns, on high strips, gigantic telamons rested (7,735 m).
The culmination of the Doric order is reached by the Parthenon. This building, an outstanding decoration of the Acropolis of Athens, had Ictino and Kallikrates as architects, but it is likely that Phidias, who was responsible for the plastic decoration of the building and the statue of the Parthénos that was contained therein, supervised the construction. Begun in 448 a. C., almost entirely built in 438, the year of the inauguration of the Parthénos, was finished almost on the eve of the Peloponnesian war. Almost m. 70, almost m. 31, it is ottastilo, amfiprostilo, with pronaos and opisthodomos, each preceded by a portico of six columns, with the separate interior naos or Hekatompedon temple (100 feet = 32,84 meters), divided into three aisles, and in Parthenónproperly said, supported by four columns. Not rigidity of properly straight lines, but very slight curves in the steps and in the architrave enlivened the whole building. An Ionic element is given by the figured frieze around the cell.