Geography of Georgia
General information about Georgia
The official name is the Republic of Georgia (Sakartvelos Republic). It is located in the central and western part of the Transcaucasus of Europe. The area is 69.7 thousand
km2, the population is 4.9 million people. (2002). The state language is Georgian, in Abkhazia – Abkhaz. The capital is the city of Tbilisi (1.3 million people, 2002). National holiday – Day of restoration of state independence on May 26. The monetary unit is lari.
Member of the UN (since 1992), OSCE, CIS, UNESCO, IMF, IBRD, FAO, has observer status in the WTO and the Council of Europe.
Geography of Georgia
Georgia is located between 42°E longitude and 46°N latitude. From the West Georgia is washed by the Black Sea. The coastline (308 km) is slightly indented, describes a smooth arc, the coast is devoid of significant bays and peninsulas. Georgia borders on Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey, Russia.
The landscape of Georgia is diverse. The high-mountainous region of the Greater Caucasus is characterized by the presence of mountain forest, black-meadow and non-vald belts, the presence of dark coniferous forests. The Colchis lowland – humid subtropics, the flat-hilly and forest-steppe region of Iberia determines the forest-steppe and steppe nature of the landscape. In the Middle Mountain region of the Lesser Caucasus, in addition to mountain forest and mountain meadow belts, there are areas with dark coniferous forests with abundant moisture and less humid areas.
The highest points in Georgia are the mountains Shkhara (5068 m), Kazbek (5035 m), Ushba (4700 m).
The longest rivers (km) are Alazani (90), Kura (351), Rioni (333); lakes (km2) – Paravani (37.5), Paliostromi (18.2), etc.
The soils are varied. Red soils are distributed mainly in Adzharia and Guria, yellow soils, chernozems, chestnut, brown and gray-brown soils are characteristic of the eastern part of the intermountain depression.
The flora of Georgia includes St. 4500 species of flowering plants. The vegetation cover is varied. The forest cover of Georgia is 36.7%. Mountain forests in the lower zone are represented by a mixture of broad-leaved species (oak, hornbeam, chestnut, beech, etc.).
Tours, chamois, and bezoar goats live in the alpine belt of the Greater Caucasus. Brown bear, lynx, deer, and roe deer live in the forests. 15 reserves have been established to protect flora and fauna.
Main minerals: manganese ores; coal; oil. Building materials are found almost everywhere.
According to bridgat, the climate in Georgia as a whole has a character, transitional from subtropical to temperate. The Colchis lowland is characterized by a humid subtropical climate, which has such features as a warm winter (+3-6°C). Frosts are very rare (down to -5°C). The climate of the Iberian depression is characterized by colder winters (-2 – +1.5°C), less precipitation in seasons. The average temperature of the warmest month of August is +23 – +26°С. The climate of the South Georgian Highlands is characterized by continentality, aridity, little snow and cold winters.
Population of Georgia
In 1999, the number of births in Georgia was 40.9 thousand, the number of deaths was 40.4, and the infant mortality rate was 17.5. per 1000 newborns. The average life expectancy is 58.2 years. Structure of the population (2000, thousand people): 0-14 years old – 1042; 15-64 – 3379; 65 years and older – 679. Of the total number (thousand people): urban population – 2975 thousand people; rural – 2155.
The educational level of the population is quite high. Georgians make up 70% of the population, the remaining 30% are representatives of 80 nationalities. The most numerous diasporas: Armenians – 8%, Russians – 6%, Azerbaijanis – 6%, Ossetians – 3%, Abkhazians – 1.7%.
Languages: Georgian, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Russian, Ossetian, Abkhaz.
The main part of believers are Orthodox Christians, the rest are Muslims, Catholics. Christianity arose in the 3rd-4th centuries.